Carla Novais

Independent Researcher

Assistant Professor (since 2012)
Personal Website
Phone number
+351 220428588 (ext: 8588)
Researcher ID

Main publications

  • Freitas, AR; Dilek, AR; Peixe, L; Novais, C. 2018. Dissemination of Staphylococcus epidermidis ST22 With Stable, High-Level Resistance to Linezolid and Tedizolid in the Greek-Turkish Region (2008-2016). INFECTION CONTROL AND HOSPITAL EPIDEMIOLOGY, 39, DOI: 10.1017/ice.2018.5
  • Freitas, AR; Tedim, AP; Novais, C; Coque, TM; Peixe, L. 2018. Distribution of putative virulence markers in Enterococcus faecium: towards a safety profile review. JOURNAL OF ANTIMICROBIAL CHEMOTHERAPY, 73, DOI: 10.1093/jac/dkx387
  • Freitas, AR; Novais, C; Duarte, B; Pereira, AP; Coque, TM; Peixe, L. 2018. High rates of colonisation by ampicillin-resistant enterococci in residents of long-term care facilities in Porto, Portugal. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS, 51, DOI: 10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2017.11.007
  • Novais, C; Campos, J; Freitas, AR; Barros, M; Silveira, E; Coque, TM; Antunes, P; Peixe, L. 2018. Water supply and feed as sources of antimicrobial-resistant Enterococcus spp. in aquacultures of rainbow trout (Oncorhyncus mykiss), Portugal. SCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENT, 625, DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.12.265
  • Freitas, AR; Elghaieb, H; Leon-Sampedro, R; Abbassi, MS; Novais, C; Coque, TM; Hassen, A; Peixe, L. 2017. Detection of optrA in the African continent (Tunisia) within a mosaic Enterococcus faecalis plasmid from urban wastewaters. JOURNAL OF ANTIMICROBIAL CHEMOTHERAPY, 72, DOI: 10.1093/jac/dkx321
  • Freitas, AR; Tedim, AP; Francia, MV; Jensen, LB; Novais, C; Peixe, L; Sanchez-Valenzuela, A; Sundsfjord, A; Hegstad, K; Werner, G; Sadowy, E; Hammerum, AM; Garcia-Migura, L; Willems, RJ; Baquero, F; Coque, TM. 2016. Multilevel population genetic analysis of vanA and vanB Enterococcus faecium causing nosocomial outbreaks in 27 countries (1986-2012). JOURNAL OF ANTIMICROBIAL CHEMOTHERAPY, 71, DOI: 10.1093/jac/dkw312
  • Novais, C; Tedim, AP; Lanza, VF; Freitas, AR; Silveira, E; Escada, R; Roberts, AP; Al-Haroni, M; Baguero, F; Peixe, L; Coque, TM. 2016. Co-diversification of Enterococcus faecium Core Genomes and PBP5: Evidences of pbp5 Horizontal Transfer. Frontiers in Microbiology, 7, DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2016.01581
  • Mourao, J; Marcal, S; Ramos, P; Campos, J; Machado, J; Peixe, L; Novais, C; Antunes, P. 2016. Tolerance to multiple metal stressors in emerging non-typhoidal MDR Salmonella serotypes: a relevant role for copper in anaerobic conditions. JOURNAL OF ANTIMICROBIAL CHEMOTHERAPY, 71, DOI: 10.1093/jac/dkw120
  • Leon-Sampedro, R; Novais, C; Peixe, L; Baquero, F; Coque, TM. 2016. Diversity and Evolution of the Tn5801-tet(M)-Like Integrative and Conjugative Elements among Enterococcus, Streptococcus, and Staphylococcus. ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS AND CHEMOTHERAPY, 60, DOI: 10.1128/AAC.01864-15
  • Mourao, J; Rae, J; Silveira, E; Freitas, AR; Coque, TM; Peixe, L; Antunes, P; Novais, C. 2016. Relevance of tcrYAZB operon acquisition for Enterococcus survival at high copper concentrations under anaerobic conditions. JOURNAL OF ANTIMICROBIAL CHEMOTHERAPY, 71, DOI: 10.1093/jac/dkv330
  • Martins, E; Novais, C; Freitas, AR; Dias, AR; Ribeiro, TG; Antunes, P; Peixe, L. 2015. Filling the map for antimicrobial resistance in sub-Saharan Africa: ampicillin-resistant Enterococcus from non-clinical sources in Angola. JOURNAL OF ANTIMICROBIAL CHEMOTHERAPY, 70, DOI: 10.1093/jac/dkv172
  • Mourao, J; Novais, C; Machado, J; Peixe, L; Antunes, P. 2015. Metal tolerance in emerging clinically relevant multidrug- resistant Salmonella enterica serotype 4,[5],12: i:- clones circulating in EuropeJoana. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS, 45, DOI: 10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2015.01.013
  • Silveira, E; Marques, P; Freitas, AR; Mourao, J; Coque, TM; Antunes, P; Peixe, L; Novais, C. 2015. A hospital sewage ST17 Enterococcus faecium with a transferable Inc18-like plasmid carrying genes coding for resistance to antibiotics and quaternary ammonium compounds (qacZ). Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance, 3, DOI: 10.1016/j.jgar.2014.11.005
  • Silveira, E; Freitas, AR; Antunes, P; Barros, M; Campos, J; Coque, TM; Peixe, L; Novais, C. 2014. Co-transfer of resistance to high concentrations of copper and first-line antibiotics among Enterococcus from different origins (humans, animals, the environment and foods) and clonal lineages. JOURNAL OF ANTIMICROBIAL CHEMOTHERAPY, 69, DOI: 10.1093/jac/dkt479
  • Novais, C; Freitas, AR; Silveira, E; Antunes, P; Silva, R; Coque, TM; Peixe, L. 2013. Spread of multidrug-resistant Enterococcus to animals and humans: an underestimated role for the pig farm environment. JOURNAL OF ANTIMICROBIAL CHEMOTHERAPY, 68, DOI: 10.1093/jac/dkt289

Main research interests

  • To understand the epidemiology and evolution of antibiotic resistance in different environments;
  • To understand the role of community reservoirs (animal, environment, food chain) in the selection and dissemination of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria/genes of clinical interest.
  • To understand the role of non-antibiotic compounds (e.g. disinfectants, metals) in the dynamics of antibiotic resistance, namely selection of particular successful clones and epidemic genetic elements (plasmids and integrative chromosomal elements).
  • To understand if successful genetic elements involved in horizontal transfer of genes coding for antibiotic resistance and biocide tolerance carry other adaptive features promoting the host colonization, using a detailed genetic characterization.


  • PhD in Microbiology, Pharmacy Faculty (2005)
  • Graduation in Pharmaceutical Sciences, Pharmacy Faculty. Porto University (2000)